Microcasting also known as wax casting, uses disposable models which are identical to the geometry of the piece to be produced in metal. Disposable models, commonly known as waxes, are realised in special materials that are designed to liquidify and burn at relatively low temperatures without leaving ashes. Disposable models are used to realise a structure referred to as cluster where the parts are the "grapes" of the cluster and the "stalk" is the feeder channel for the melted metal. This wax structure is immersed in an inert material (gypsum or liquid ceramic) and then annealed. During the annealing phase, the refractory material solidifies and the wax dissolves, leaving a cavity identical to the pieces using the casting system. An empty shell is achieved which can then be filled with aluminium (if the shell is in gypsum) or with steel (if the shell is in ceramic). Ceramic shells are significantly more resistant but the procedure to create them is much longer (they are achieved by immersing the cluster in the "liquid binder", the liquid ceramic, allowing it to dry and repeating this sequence various times.
These can be obtained by direct moulding of digital polystyrene (very rapid and inexpensive, but with a rough surface finish and a precision of ±0.16 mm) or by casting of wax in silicone moulds made with stereo-lithographic masters. The latter are perfectly compact and have a detail level of ±0.05 mm.
Microcastings distinguish themselves for their exceptionally high resolutions, up to ±0.05 mm, but due to the very high number of layers needed to construct the pieces, the parts measuring over 120 mm in height tend to be very expensive. Prototyping can be used to realise monolithic objects up to a maximum of 350 mm in size.